Wheat offal or bran, a by-product of the dry milling of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) into flour, is one of the major agro-industrial by-products used in animal feeding.
It consists of the outer layers (cuticle, pericarp, and seedcoat) combined with small amounts of the starchy endosperm of the wheat kernel. Other wheat processing industries that include a bran removal step may also produce wheat bran as a separate by-product: pasta and semolina production from durum wheat (Triticum durumDesf.), starch production, and ethanol production.
- Wheat offals can be used as effective replacements for guinea corn and maize which are more expensive and less nutritious in broiler feed production.
- Wheat bran, fine wheat bran, coarse wheat bran, coarse wheat feed
- Milling yields variable proportions of flour, depending on the quality of the final product. The extraction rate (flour: grain ratio) goes from 100% for wholemeal flour to less than 70% for pastry flour. Typical extraction rates range from 75% to 80%, resulting in 20 to 25% wheat offal
- Wheat bran represents roughly 50% of wheat offals and about 10 to 19% of the kernel, depending on the variety and milling process
- After a cleaning step that removes grain impurities in the industrial milling process, the grains are tempered (soaked to toughen the outer layers and mellow the starchy endosperm to facilitate their separation) and then subjected to a series of grinding operations that produce finer and finer flour particles.
- The first grinding steps yield coarse particles of broken wheat and bran, and the later stages produce other by-products.
- Milling by-products are traditionally named after their quality (fineness, colour, etc.) and/or the stage of the process at which they arose, with considerable variations between languages, countries, regions, milling processes, and even mills.
- In industrial countries, these products used to be sold separately (coarse bran, fine bran, middlings, second clear, thirds, etc.) but are now mixed together in variable proportions
- Consequently, wheat milling offals form a continuum of products with a decreasing fiber: starch ratio, from the fibrous coarse brans produced by the first grinding steps to starchy feed-grade flours.
- Wheat brans sold for animal feeding are typically mixtures of true coarse brans and finer products from the later grinding stages. In rural and traditional milling, flour is directly separated from the bran in one-step milling and screening.
- This type of bran has a higher starch content and a higher nutritive value.
AVAIL P %
|Palm Kernel Meal||15||2175||15||0.64||0.39||0.21||0.16|
|Palm Kernel Cake (PKC)||16||2450||15||0.64||0.39||0.21||0.16|
|Rice Offal (Parboiled)||3.5||1200||36||0.2||0.07||0.16|
|Rice Offal (Unparboiled)||5.5||1300||30||0.2||0.07||0.15|
|Brewers Dried Grains (BDG)||18||1980||15||0.9||0.4||0.2||0.16|
- Wheat bran consists mainly of the outer coatings of wheat kernels.
- Wheat red dog, sometimes referred to as “light shorts,” is a product from the tail of the mill that consists mainly of the aleurone layer with small particles of bran, germ, and flour.
- Wheat middling consists of fine particles of bran and germ, with very little red dog.
- Wheat shorts consist of bran, germ, flour, and tailings.
- Wheat screenings consist of thin, broken, and shrunken wheat kernels, weed seeds, and other contaminants, including straw, chaff, and dust. Commercial products should have at least 35% grain, less than 8% small weed seeds (for example, wild and domestic mustard, flax, rapeseed), and not have more than 8% wild oats.
Unlike feeds for ruminants, poultry diets are usually complete feeds and supply the total daily requirements apart from water. These feeds help to maximize production whether it be for eggs, meat, or rearing replacements. Essentially, broiler varieties of chicken feed are denser in protein, which encourages the flock to grow bigger, faster.